Effects of Smoking on Fertility
Infertility is a common problem, occurring in one out of six couples. Cigarette smoking reduces both female and male fertility.
Women and Infertility:
- Smoking has a negative effect on the ovaries and uterine wall, reducing a woman’s chance of conception. Research shows that smoking may reduce the embryo’s ability to implant in the lining of the uterus.
- Women who smoke may experience a poor response to hormone stimulation when being treated for infertility with in-vitro fertilization or embryo transfer.
- Heavy smokers have a higher likelihood of having abnormal vaginal bleeding than nonsmokers.
- Women who smoke are prone to early menopause.
- In some women infertility can be reversed after smoking cessation.
Men and Infertility:
- The more men smoke, the more the ability of sperm to bind to an egg is diminished. Smoking is linked to low sperm counts and sluggish moving sperm.
- It takes at least 2½ months to see improvement in sperm count and motility after quitting.
- Smoking can gradually and permanently damage blood vessels throughout the body, including those that carry blood to the penis. This can make it difficult to get or maintain an erection.
- Men who quit smoking often have fewer problems achieving a normal erection.
- When both partners smoke there is a 64% increase in miscarriages.