Effects of Smoking on Fertility
Infertility is a common problem, occurring in one out of six couples. Cigarette smoking reduces both female and male fertility.
Women and Infertility:
- Smoking has a negative effect on the ovaries and damages the uterine wall reducing conception chances. New findings also show that smoking negatively affects the uterus, damaging its lining and impairs the chances of a fetus implanting in the uterus.
- Women who smoke and undergo in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment forof infertility may experience a poor response to hormone stimulation.
- Heavy smokers have a higher likelihood of having abnormal vaginal bleeding than nonsmokers.
- Women who smoke are prone to early menopause.
- In some women infertility can be reversed after smoking cessation.
Men and Infertility:
- The more men smoke, the more the ability of sperm to bind to an egg is diminished. Smoking is linked to low sperm counts and sluggish motility.
- Smoking can gradually and permanently damage blood vessels throughout the body, including those that carry blood to the penis. This can make it difficult to get or maintain an erection.
- Men who quit smoking often have fewer problems achieving a normal erection.
- When both partners smoke there is a 64% increase in miscarriages.
- It will take at least 2½ months to see improvement in sperm count and motility after quitting.